Surgery : Type of surgical procedure performed for rectal cancer depends on how far tumour is from anal verge and whether external sphincters are involved or not. For upper third rectal cancer anterior resection and colorectal anastomosis is performed. For middle and lower third rectal cancer low anterior resection is done if sphincters are free and sufficient distal margin can be achieved.Tumour involving external sphincter and within 2 cm of anal verge usually require abdominoperineal resection and permanent colostomy. Continence can be preserved in selected cases of low rectal cancer by intersphincteric resection and coloanal anastomosis.
Radiotherapy : Radiotherapy is usually used in locally advanced tumours for better loco-regional control of cancer.
Chemotherapy : Chemotherapy is used in locally advanced tumours after surgical resection.